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Building and Distributing Packages with setuptools

setuptools is a collection of enhancements to the Python distutils (for Python 2.3.5 and up on most platforms; 64-bit platforms require a minimum of Python 2.4) that allow you to more easily build and distribute Python packages, especially ones that have dependencies on other packages.

Packages built and distributed using setuptools look to the user like ordinary Python packages based on the distutils. Your users don't need to install or even know about setuptools in order to use them, and you don't have to include the entire setuptools package in your distributions. By including just a single bootstrap module (an 8K .py file), your package will automatically download and install setuptools if the user is building your package from source and doesn't have a suitable version already installed.

Feature Highlights:

In addition to the PyPI downloads, the development version of setuptools is available from the Python SVN sandbox, and in-development versions of the 0.6 branch are available as well.

Table of Contents

Developer's Guide

Installing setuptools

Please follow the EasyInstall Installation Instructions to install the current stable version of setuptools. In particular, be sure to read the section on Custom Installation Locations if you are installing anywhere other than Python's site-packages directory.

If you want the current in-development version of setuptools, you should first install a stable version, and then run:

ez_setup.py setuptools==dev

This will download and install the latest development (i.e. unstable) version of setuptools from the Python Subversion sandbox.

Basic Use

For basic use of setuptools, just import things from setuptools instead of the distutils. Here's a minimal setup script using setuptools:

from setuptools import setup, find_packages
setup(
    name = "HelloWorld",
    version = "0.1",
    packages = find_packages(),
)

As you can see, it doesn't take much to use setuptools in a project. Just by doing the above, this project will be able to produce eggs, upload to PyPI, and automatically include all packages in the directory where the setup.py lives. See the Command Reference section below to see what commands you can give to this setup script.

Of course, before you release your project to PyPI, you'll want to add a bit more information to your setup script to help people find or learn about your project. And maybe your project will have grown by then to include a few dependencies, and perhaps some data files and scripts:

from setuptools import setup, find_packages
setup(
    name = "HelloWorld",
    version = "0.1",
    packages = find_packages(),
    scripts = ['say_hello.py'],

    # Project uses reStructuredText, so ensure that the docutils get
    # installed or upgraded on the target machine
    install_requires = ['docutils>=0.3'],

    package_data = {
        # If any package contains *.txt or *.rst files, include them:
        '': ['*.txt', '*.rst'],
        # And include any *.msg files found in the 'hello' package, too:
        'hello': ['*.msg'],
    }

    # metadata for upload to PyPI
    author = "Me",
    author_email = "me@example.com",
    description = "This is an Example Package",
    license = "PSF",
    keywords = "hello world example examples",
    url = "http://example.com/HelloWorld/",   # project home page, if any

    # could also include long_description, download_url, classifiers, etc.
)

In the sections that follow, we'll explain what most of these setup() arguments do (except for the metadata ones), and the various ways you might use them in your own project(s).

Specifying Your Project's Version

Setuptools can work well with most versioning schemes; there are, however, a few special things to watch out for, in order to ensure that setuptools and EasyInstall can always tell what version of your package is newer than another version. Knowing these things will also help you correctly specify what versions of other projects your project depends on.

A version consists of an alternating series of release numbers and pre-release or post-release tags. A release number is a series of digits punctuated by dots, such as 2.4 or 0.5. Each series of digits is treated numerically, so releases 2.1 and 2.1.0 are different ways to spell the same release number, denoting the first subrelease of release 2. But 2.10 is the tenth subrelease of release 2, and so is a different and newer release from 2.1 or 2.1.0. Leading zeros within a series of digits are also ignored, so 2.01 is the same as 2.1, and different from 2.0.1.

Following a release number, you can have either a pre-release or post-release tag. Pre-release tags make a version be considered older than the version they are appended to. So, revision 2.4 is newer than revision 2.4c1, which in turn is newer than 2.4b1 or 2.4a1. Postrelease tags make a version be considered newer than the version they are appended to. So, revisions like 2.4-1 and 2.4pl3 are newer than 2.4, but are older than 2.4.1 (which has a higher release number).

A pre-release tag is a series of letters that are alphabetically before "final". Some examples of prerelease tags would include alpha, beta, a, c, dev, and so on. You do not have to place a dot before the prerelease tag if it's immediately after a number, but it's okay to do so if you prefer. Thus, 2.4c1 and 2.4.c1 both represent release candidate 1 of version 2.4, and are treated as identical by setuptools.

In addition, there are three special prerelease tags that are treated as if they were the letter c: pre, preview, and rc. So, version 2.4rc1, 2.4pre1 and 2.4preview1 are all the exact same version as 2.4c1, and are treated as identical by setuptools.

A post-release tag is either a series of letters that are alphabetically greater than or equal to "final", or a dash (-). Post-release tags are generally used to separate patch numbers, port numbers, build numbers, revision numbers, or date stamps from the release number. For example, the version 2.4-r1263 might denote Subversion revision 1263 of a post-release patch of version 2.4. Or you might use 2.4-20051127 to denote a date-stamped post-release.

Notice that after each pre or post-release tag, you are free to place another release number, followed again by more pre- or post-release tags. For example, 0.6a9.dev-r41475 could denote Subversion revision 41475 of the in- development version of the ninth alpha of release 0.6. Notice that dev is a pre-release tag, so this version is a lower version number than 0.6a9, which would be the actual ninth alpha of release 0.6. But the -r41475 is a post-release tag, so this version is newer than 0.6a9.dev.

For the most part, setuptools' interpretation of version numbers is intuitive, but here are a few tips that will keep you out of trouble in the corner cases:

  • Don't use - or any other character than . as a separator, unless you really want a post-release. Remember that 2.1-rc2 means you've already released 2.1, whereas 2.1rc2 and 2.1.c2 are candidates you're putting out before 2.1. If you accidentally distribute copies of a post-release that you meant to be a pre-release, the only safe fix is to bump your main release number (e.g. to 2.1.1) and re-release the project.

  • Don't stick adjoining pre-release tags together without a dot or number between them. Version 1.9adev is the adev prerelease of 1.9, not a development pre-release of 1.9a. Use .dev instead, as in 1.9a.dev, or separate the prerelease tags with a number, as in 1.9a0dev. 1.9a.dev, 1.9a0dev, and even 1.9.a.dev are identical versions from setuptools' point of view, so you can use whatever scheme you prefer.

  • If you want to be certain that your chosen numbering scheme works the way you think it will, you can use the pkg_resources.parse_version() function to compare different version numbers:

    >>> from pkg_resources import parse_version
    >>> parse_version('1.9.a.dev') == parse_version('1.9a0dev')
    True
    >>> parse_version('2.1-rc2') < parse_version('2.1')
    False
    >>> parse_version('0.6a9dev-r41475') < parse_version('0.6a9')
    True
    

Once you've decided on a version numbering scheme for your project, you can have setuptools automatically tag your in-development releases with various pre- or post-release tags. See the following sections for more details:

New and Changed setup() Keywords

The following keyword arguments to setup() are added or changed by setuptools. All of them are optional; you do not have to supply them unless you need the associated setuptools feature.

include_package_data
If set to True, this tells setuptools to automatically include any data files it finds inside your package directories, that are either under CVS or Subversion control, or which are specified by your MANIFEST.in file. For more information, see the section below on Including Data Files.
exclude_package_data
A dictionary mapping package names to lists of glob patterns that should be excluded from your package directories. You can use this to trim back any excess files included by include_package_data. For a complete description and examples, see the section below on Including Data Files.
package_data
A dictionary mapping package names to lists of glob patterns. For a complete description and examples, see the section below on Including Data Files. You do not need to use this option if you are using include_package_data, unless you need to add e.g. files that are generated by your setup script and build process. (And are therefore not in source control or are files that you don't want to include in your source distribution.)
zip_safe
A boolean (True or False) flag specifying whether the project can be safely installed and run from a zip file. If this argument is not supplied, the bdist_egg command will have to analyze all of your project's contents for possible problems each time it buids an egg.
install_requires
A string or list of strings specifying what other distributions need to be installed when this one is. See the section below on Declaring Dependencies for details and examples of the format of this argument.
entry_points
A dictionary mapping entry point group names to strings or lists of strings defining the entry points. Entry points are used to support dynamic discovery of services or plugins provided by a project. See Dynamic Discovery of Services and Plugins for details and examples of the format of this argument. In addition, this keyword is used to support Automatic Script Creation.
extras_require
A dictionary mapping names of "extras" (optional features of your project) to strings or lists of strings specifying what other distributions must be installed to support those features. See the section below on Declaring Dependencies for details and examples of the format of this argument.
setup_requires

A string or list of strings specifying what other distributions need to be present in order for the setup script to run. setuptools will attempt to obtain these (even going so far as to download them using EasyInstall) before processing the rest of the setup script or commands. This argument is needed if you are using distutils extensions as part of your build process; for example, extensions that process setup() arguments and turn them into EGG-INFO metadata files.

(Note: projects listed in setup_requires will NOT be automatically installed on the system where the setup script is being run. They are simply downloaded to the setup directory if they're not locally available already. If you want them to be installed, as well as being available when the setup script is run, you should add them to install_requires and setup_requires.)

dependency_links
A list of strings naming URLs to be searched when satisfying dependencies. These links will be used if needed to install packages specified by setup_requires or tests_require. They will also be written into the egg's metadata for use by tools like EasyInstall to use when installing an .egg file.
namespace_packages
A list of strings naming the project's "namespace packages". A namespace package is a package that may be split across multiple project distributions. For example, Zope 3's zope package is a namespace package, because subpackages like zope.interface and zope.publisher may be distributed separately. The egg runtime system can automatically merge such subpackages into a single parent package at runtime, as long as you declare them in each project that contains any subpackages of the namespace package, and as long as the namespace package's __init__.py does not contain any code. See the section below on Namespace Packages for more information.
test_suite

A string naming a unittest.TestCase subclass (or a package or module containing one or more of them, or a method of such a subclass), or naming a function that can be called with no arguments and returns a unittest.TestSuite. If the named suite is a module, and the module has an additional_tests() function, it is called and the results are added to the tests to be run. If the named suite is a package, any submodules and subpackages are recursively added to the overall test suite.

Specifying this argument enables use of the test command to run the specified test suite, e.g. via setup.py test. See the section on the test command below for more details.

tests_require
If your project's tests need one or more additional packages besides those needed to install it, you can use this option to specify them. It should be a string or list of strings specifying what other distributions need to be present for the package's tests to run. When you run the test command, setuptools will attempt to obtain these (even going so far as to download them using EasyInstall). Note that these required projects will not be installed on the system where the tests are run, but only downloaded to the project's setup directory if they're not already installed locally.
test_loader

If you would like to use a different way of finding tests to run than what setuptools normally uses, you can specify a module name and class name in this argument. The named class must be instantiable with no arguments, and its instances must support the loadTestsFromNames() method as defined in the Python unittest module's TestLoader class. Setuptools will pass only one test "name" in the names argument: the value supplied for the test_suite argument. The loader you specify may interpret this string in any way it likes, as there are no restrictions on what may be contained in a test_suite string.

The module name and class name must be separated by a :. The default value of this argument is "setuptools.command.test:ScanningLoader". If you want to use the default unittest behavior, you can specify "unittest:TestLoader" as your test_loader argument instead. This will prevent automatic scanning of submodules and subpackages.

The module and class you specify here may be contained in another package, as long as you use the tests_require option to ensure that the package containing the loader class is available when the test command is run.

eager_resources

A list of strings naming resources that should be extracted together, if any of them is needed, or if any C extensions included in the project are imported. This argument is only useful if the project will be installed as a zipfile, and there is a need to have all of the listed resources be extracted to the filesystem as a unit. Resources listed here should be '/'-separated paths, relative to the source root, so to list a resource foo.png in package bar.baz, you would include the string bar/baz/foo.png in this argument.

If you only need to obtain resources one at a time, or you don't have any C extensions that access other files in the project (such as data files or shared libraries), you probably do NOT need this argument and shouldn't mess with it. For more details on how this argument works, see the section below on Automatic Resource Extraction.

Using find_packages()

For simple projects, it's usually easy enough to manually add packages to the packages argument of setup(). However, for very large projects (Twisted, PEAK, Zope, Chandler, etc.), it can be a big burden to keep the package list updated. That's what setuptools.find_packages() is for.

find_packages() takes a source directory, and a list of package names or patterns to exclude. If omitted, the source directory defaults to the same directory as the setup script. Some projects use a src or lib directory as the root of their source tree, and those projects would of course use "src" or "lib" as the first argument to find_packages(). (And such projects also need something like package_dir = {'':'src'} in their setup() arguments, but that's just a normal distutils thing.)

Anyway, find_packages() walks the target directory, and finds Python packages by looking for __init__.py files. It then filters the list of packages using the exclusion patterns.

Exclusion patterns are package names, optionally including wildcards. For example, find_packages(exclude=["*.tests"]) will exclude all packages whose last name part is tests. Or, find_packages(exclude=["*.tests", "*.tests.*"]) will also exclude any subpackages of packages named tests, but it still won't exclude a top-level tests package or the children thereof. In fact, if you really want no tests packages at all, you'll need something like this:

find_packages(exclude=["*.tests", "*.tests.*", "tests.*", "tests"])

in order to cover all the bases. Really, the exclusion patterns are intended to cover simpler use cases than this, like excluding a single, specified package and its subpackages.

Regardless of the target directory or exclusions, the find_packages() function returns a list of package names suitable for use as the packages argument to setup(), and so is usually the easiest way to set that argument in your setup script. Especially since it frees you from having to remember to modify your setup script whenever your project grows additional top-level packages or subpackages.

Automatic Script Creation

Packaging and installing scripts can be a bit awkward with the distutils. For one thing, there's no easy way to have a script's filename match local conventions on both Windows and POSIX platforms. For another, you often have to create a separate file just for the "main" script, when your actual "main" is a function in a module somewhere. And even in Python 2.4, using the -m option only works for actual .py files that aren't installed in a package.

setuptools fixes all of these problems by automatically generating scripts for you with the correct extension, and on Windows it will even create an .exe file so that users don't have to change their PATHEXT settings. The way to use this feature is to define "entry points" in your setup script that indicate what function the generated script should import and run. For example, to create two console scripts called foo and bar, and a GUI script called baz, you might do something like this:

setup(
    # other arguments here...
    entry_points = {
        'console_scripts': [
            'foo = my_package.some_module:main_func',
            'bar = other_module:some_func',
        ],
        'gui_scripts': [
            'baz = my_package_gui.start_func',
        ]
    }
)

When this project is installed on non-Windows platforms (using "setup.py install", "setup.py develop", or by using EasyInstall), a set of foo, bar, and baz scripts will be installed that import main_func and some_func from the specified modules. The functions you specify are called with no arguments, and their return value is passed to sys.exit(), so you can return an errorlevel or message to print to stderr.

On Windows, a set of foo.exe, bar.exe, and baz.exe launchers are created, alongside a set of foo.py, bar.py, and baz.pyw files. The .exe wrappers find and execute the right version of Python to run the .py or .pyw file.

You may define as many "console script" and "gui script" entry points as you like, and each one can optionally specify "extras" that it depends on, that will be added to sys.path when the script is run. For more information on "extras", see the section below on Declaring Extras. For more information on "entry points" in general, see the section below on Dynamic Discovery of Services and Plugins.

"Eggsecutable" Scripts

Occasionally, there are situations where it's desirable to make an .egg file directly executable. You can do this by including an entry point such as the following:

setup(
    # other arguments here...
    entry_points = {
        'setuptools.installation': [
            'eggsecutable = my_package.some_module:main_func',
        ]
    }
)

Any eggs built from the above setup script will include a short excecutable prelude that imports and calls main_func() from my_package.some_module. The prelude can be run on Unix-like platforms (including Mac and Linux) by invoking the egg with /bin/sh, or by enabling execute permissions on the .egg file. For the executable prelude to run, the appropriate version of Python must be available via the PATH environment variable, under its "long" name. That is, if the egg is built for Python 2.3, there must be a python2.3 executable present in a directory on PATH.

This feature is primarily intended to support bootstrapping the installation of setuptools itself on non-Windows platforms, but may also be useful for other projects as well.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Eggs with an "eggsecutable" header cannot be renamed, or invoked via symlinks. They must be invoked using their original filename, in order to ensure that, once running, pkg_resources will know what project and version is in use. The header script will check this and exit with an error if the .egg file has been renamed or is invoked via a symlink that changes its base name.

Declaring Dependencies

setuptools supports automatically installing dependencies when a package is installed, and including information about dependencies in Python Eggs (so that package management tools like EasyInstall can use the information).

setuptools and pkg_resources use a common syntax for specifying a project's required dependencies. This syntax consists of a project's PyPI name, optionally followed by a comma-separated list of "extras" in square brackets, optionally followed by a comma-separated list of version specifiers. A version specifier is one of the operators <, >, <=, >=, == or !=, followed by a version identifier. Tokens may be separated by whitespace, but any whitespace or nonstandard characters within a project name or version identifier must be replaced with -.

Version specifiers for a given project are internally sorted into ascending version order, and used to establish what ranges of versions are acceptable. Adjacent redundant conditions are also consolidated (e.g. ">1, >2" becomes ">1", and "<2,<3" becomes "<3"). "!=" versions are excised from the ranges they fall within. A project's version is then checked for membership in the resulting ranges. (Note that providing conflicting conditions for the same version (e.g. "<2,>=2" or "==2,!=2") is meaningless and may therefore produce bizarre results.)

Here are some example requirement specifiers:

docutils >= 0.3

# comment lines and \ continuations are allowed in requirement strings
BazSpam ==1.1, ==1.2, ==1.3, ==1.4, ==1.5, \
    ==1.6, ==1.7  # and so are line-end comments

PEAK[FastCGI, reST]>=0.5a4

setuptools==0.5a7

The simplest way to include requirement specifiers is to use the install_requires argument to setup(). It takes a string or list of strings containing requirement specifiers. If you include more than one requirement in a string, each requirement must begin on a new line.

This has three effects:

  1. When your project is installed, either by using EasyInstall, setup.py install, or setup.py develop, all of the dependencies not already installed will be located (via PyPI), downloaded, built (if necessary), and installed.
  2. Any scripts in your project will be installed with wrappers that verify the availability of the specified dependencies at runtime, and ensure that the correct versions are added to sys.path (e.g. if multiple versions have been installed).
  3. Python Egg distributions will include a metadata file listing the dependencies.

Note, by the way, that if you declare your dependencies in setup.py, you do not need to use the require() function in your scripts or modules, as long as you either install the project or use setup.py develop to do development work on it. (See "Development Mode" below for more details on using setup.py develop.)

Dependencies that aren't in PyPI

If your project depends on packages that aren't registered in PyPI, you may still be able to depend on them, as long as they are available for download as an egg, in the standard distutils sdist format, or as a single .py file. You just need to add some URLs to the dependency_links argument to setup().

The URLs must be either:

  1. direct download URLs, or
  2. the URLs of web pages that contain direct download links

In general, it's better to link to web pages, because it is usually less complex to update a web page than to release a new version of your project. You can also use a SourceForge showfiles.php link in the case where a package you depend on is distributed via SourceForge.

If you depend on a package that's distributed as a single .py file, you must include an "#egg=project-version" suffix to the URL, to give a project name and version number. (Be sure to escape any dashes in the name or version by replacing them with underscores.) EasyInstall will recognize this suffix and automatically create a trivial setup.py to wrap the single .py file as an egg.

The dependency_links option takes the form of a list of URL strings. For example, the below will cause EasyInstall to search the specified page for eggs or source distributions, if the package's dependencies aren't already installed:

setup(
    ...
    dependency_links = [
        "http://peak.telecommunity.com/snapshots/"
    ],
)

Declaring "Extras" (optional features with their own dependencies)

Sometimes a project has "recommended" dependencies, that are not required for all uses of the project. For example, a project might offer optional PDF output if ReportLab is installed, and reStructuredText support if docutils is installed. These optional features are called "extras", and setuptools allows you to define their requirements as well. In this way, other projects that require these optional features can force the additional requirements to be installed, by naming the desired extras in their install_requires.

For example, let's say that Project A offers optional PDF and reST support:

setup(
    name="Project-A",
    ...
    extras_require = {
        'PDF':  ["ReportLab>=1.2", "RXP"],
        'reST': ["docutils>=0.3"],
    }
)

As you can see, the extras_require argument takes a dictionary mapping names of "extra" features, to strings or lists of strings describing those features' requirements. These requirements will not be automatically installed unless another package depends on them (directly or indirectly) by including the desired "extras" in square brackets after the associated project name. (Or if the extras were listed in a requirement spec on the EasyInstall command line.)

Extras can be used by a project's entry points to specify dynamic dependencies. For example, if Project A includes a "rst2pdf" script, it might declare it like this, so that the "PDF" requirements are only resolved if the "rst2pdf" script is run:

setup(
    name="Project-A",
    ...
    entry_points = {
        'console_scripts':
            ['rst2pdf = project_a.tools.pdfgen [PDF]'],
            ['rst2html = project_a.tools.htmlgen'],
            # more script entry points ...
    }
)

Projects can also use another project's extras when specifying dependencies. For example, if project B needs "project A" with PDF support installed, it might declare the dependency like this:

setup(
    name="Project-B",
    install_requires = ["Project-A[PDF]"],
    ...
)

This will cause ReportLab to be installed along with project A, if project B is installed -- even if project A was already installed. In this way, a project can encapsulate groups of optional "downstream dependencies" under a feature name, so that packages that depend on it don't have to know what the downstream dependencies are. If a later version of Project A builds in PDF support and no longer needs ReportLab, or if it ends up needing other dependencies besides ReportLab in order to provide PDF support, Project B's setup information does not need to change, but the right packages will still be installed if needed.

Note, by the way, that if a project ends up not needing any other packages to support a feature, it should keep an empty requirements list for that feature in its extras_require argument, so that packages depending on that feature don't break (due to an invalid feature name). For example, if Project A above builds in PDF support and no longer needs ReportLab, it could change its setup to this:

setup(
    name="Project-A",
    ...
    extras_require = {
        'PDF':  [],
        'reST': ["docutils>=0.3"],
    }
)

so that Package B doesn't have to remove the [PDF] from its requirement specifier.

Including Data Files

The distutils have traditionally allowed installation of "data files", which are placed in a platform-specific location. However, the most common use case for data files distributed with a package is for use by the package, usually by including the data files in the package directory.

Setuptools offers three ways to specify data files to be included in your packages. First, you can simply use the include_package_data keyword, e.g.:

from setuptools import setup, find_packages
setup(
    ...
    include_package_data = True
)

This tells setuptools to install any data files it finds in your packages. The data files must be under CVS or Subversion control, or else they must be specified via the distutils' MANIFEST.in file. (They can also be tracked by another revision control system, using an appropriate plugin. See the section below on Adding Support for Other Revision Control Systems for information on how to write such plugins.)

If you want finer-grained control over what files are included (for example, if you have documentation files in your package directories and want to exclude them from installation), then you can also use the package_data keyword, e.g.:

from setuptools import setup, find_packages
setup(
    ...
    package_data = {
        # If any package contains *.txt or *.rst files, include them:
        '': ['*.txt', '*.rst'],
        # And include any *.msg files found in the 'hello' package, too:
        'hello': ['*.msg'],
    }
)

The package_data argument is a dictionary that maps from package names to lists of glob patterns. The globs may include subdirectory names, if the data files are contained in a subdirectory of the package. For example, if the package tree looks like this:

setup.py
src/
    mypkg/
        __init__.py
        mypkg.txt
        data/
            somefile.dat
            otherdata.dat

The setuptools setup file might look like this:

from setuptools import setup, find_packages
setup(
    ...
    packages = find_packages('src'),  # include all packages under src
    package_dir = {'':'src'},   # tell distutils packages are under src

    package_data = {
        # If any package contains *.txt files, include them:
        '': ['*.txt'],
        # And include any *.dat files found in the 'data' subdirectory
        # of the 'mypkg' package, also:
        'mypkg': ['data/*.dat'],
    }
)

Notice that if you list patterns in package_data under the empty string, these patterns are used to find files in every package, even ones that also have their own patterns listed. Thus, in the above example, the mypkg.txt file gets included even though it's not listed in the patterns for mypkg.

Also notice that if you use paths, you must use a forward slash (/) as the path separator, even if you are on Windows. Setuptools automatically converts slashes to appropriate platform-specific separators at build time.

(Note: although the package_data argument was previously only available in setuptools, it was also added to the Python distutils package as of Python 2.4; there is some documentation for the feature available on the python.org website.)

Sometimes, the include_package_data or package_data options alone aren't sufficient to precisely define what files you want included. For example, you may want to include package README files in your revision control system and source distributions, but exclude them from being installed. So, setuptools offers an exclude_package_data option as well, that allows you to do things like this:

from setuptools import setup, find_packages
setup(
    ...
    packages = find_packages('src'),  # include all packages under src
    package_dir = {'':'src'},   # tell distutils packages are under src

    include_package_data = True,    # include everything in source control

    # ...but exclude README.txt from all packages
    exclude_package_data = { '': ['README.txt'] },
)

The exclude_package_data option is a dictionary mapping package names to lists of wildcard patterns, just like the package_data option. And, just as with that option, a key of '' will apply the given pattern(s) to all packages. However, any files that match these patterns will be excluded from installation, even if they were listed in package_data or were included as a result of using include_package_data.

In summary, the three options allow you to:

include_package_data
Accept all data files and directories matched by MANIFEST.in or found in source control.
package_data
Specify additional patterns to match files and directories that may or may not be matched by MANIFEST.in or found in source control.
exclude_package_data
Specify patterns for data files and directories that should not be included when a package is installed, even if they would otherwise have been included due to the use of the preceding options.

NOTE: Due to the way the distutils build process works, a data file that you include in your project and then stop including may be "orphaned" in your project's build directories, requiring you to run setup.py clean --all to fully remove them. This may also be important for your users and contributors if they track intermediate revisions of your project using Subversion; be sure to let them know when you make changes that remove files from inclusion so they can run setup.py clean --all.

Accessing Data Files at Runtime

Typically, existing programs manipulate a package's __file__ attribute in order to find the location of data files. However, this manipulation isn't compatible with PEP 302-based import hooks, including importing from zip files and Python Eggs. It is strongly recommended that, if you are using data files, you should use the Resource Management API of pkg_resources to access them. The pkg_resources module is distributed as part of setuptools, so if you're using setuptools to distribute your package, there is no reason not to use its resource management API. See also Accessing Package Resources for a quick example of converting code that uses __file__ to use pkg_resources instead.

Non-Package Data Files

The distutils normally install general "data files" to a platform-specific location (e.g. /usr/share). This feature intended to be used for things like documentation, example configuration files, and the like. setuptools does not install these data files in a separate location, however. They are bundled inside the egg file or directory, alongside the Python modules and packages. The data files can also be accessed using the Resource Management API, by specifying a Requirement instead of a package name:

from pkg_resources import Requirement, resource_filename
filename = resource_filename(Requirement.parse("MyProject"),"sample.conf")

The above code will obtain the filename of the "sample.conf" file in the data root of the "MyProject" distribution.

Note, by the way, that this encapsulation of data files means that you can't actually install data files to some arbitrary location on a user's machine; this is a feature, not a bug. You can always include a script in your distribution that extracts and copies your the documentation or data files to a user-specified location, at their discretion. If you put related data files in a single directory, you can use resource_filename() with the directory name to get a filesystem directory that then can be copied with the shutil module. (Even if your package is installed as a zipfile, calling resource_filename() on a directory will return an actual filesystem directory, whose contents will be that entire subtree of your distribution.)

(Of course, if you're writing a new package, you can just as easily place your data files or directories inside one of your packages, rather than using the distutils' approach. However, if you're updating an existing application, it may be simpler not to change the way it currently specifies these data files.)

Automatic Resource Extraction

If you are using tools that expect your resources to be "real" files, or your project includes non-extension native libraries or other files that your C extensions expect to be able to access, you may need to list those files in the eager_resources argument to setup(), so that the files will be extracted together, whenever a C extension in the project is imported.

This is especially important if your project includes shared libraries other than distutils-built C extensions, and those shared libraries use file extensions other than .dll, .so, or .dylib, which are the extensions that setuptools 0.6a8 and higher automatically detects as shared libraries and adds to the native_libs.txt file for you. Any shared libraries whose names do not end with one of those extensions should be listed as eager_resources, because they need to be present in the filesystem when he C extensions that link to them are used.

The pkg_resources runtime for compressed packages will automatically extract all C extensions and eager_resources at the same time, whenever any C extension or eager resource is requested via the resource_filename() API. (C extensions are imported using resource_filename() internally.) This ensures that C extensions will see all of the "real" files that they expect to see.

Note also that you can list directory resource names in eager_resources as well, in which case the directory's contents (including subdirectories) will be extracted whenever any C extension or eager resource is requested.

Please note that if you're not sure whether you need to use this argument, you don't! It's really intended to support projects with lots of non-Python dependencies and as a last resort for crufty projects that can't otherwise handle being compressed. If your package is pure Python, Python plus data files, or Python plus C, you really don't need this. You've got to be using either C or an external program that needs "real" files in your project before there's any possibility of eager_resources being relevant to your project.

Extensible Applications and Frameworks

Dynamic Discovery of Services and Plugins

setuptools supports creating libraries that "plug in" to extensible applications and frameworks, by letting you register "entry points" in your project that can be imported by the application or framework.

For example, suppose that a blogging tool wants to support plugins that provide translation for various file types to the blog's output format. The framework might define an "entry point group" called blogtool.parsers, and then allow plugins to register entry points for the file extensions they support.

This would allow people to create distributions that contain one or more parsers for different file types, and then the blogging tool would be able to find the parsers at runtime by looking up an entry point for the file extension (or mime type, or however it wants to).

Note that if the blogging tool includes parsers for certain file formats, it can register these as entry points in its own setup script, which means it doesn't have to special-case its built-in formats. They can just be treated the same as any other plugin's entry points would be.

If you're creating a project that plugs in to an existing application or framework, you'll need to know what entry points or entry point groups are defined by that application or framework. Then, you can register entry points in your setup script. Here are a few examples of ways you might register an .rst file parser entry point in the blogtool.parsers entry point group, for our hypothetical blogging tool:

setup(
    # ...
    entry_points = {'blogtool.parsers': '.rst = some_module:SomeClass'}
)

setup(
    # ...
    entry_points = {'blogtool.parsers': ['.rst = some_module:a_func']}
)

setup(
    # ...
    entry_points = """
        [blogtool.parsers]
        .rst = some.nested.module:SomeClass.some_classmethod [reST]
    """,
    extras_require = dict(reST = "Docutils>=0.3.5")
)

The entry_points argument to setup() accepts either a string with .ini-style sections, or a dictionary mapping entry point group names to either strings or lists of strings containing entry point specifiers. An entry point specifier consists of a name and value, separated by an = sign. The value consists of a dotted module name, optionally followed by a : and a dotted identifier naming an object within the module. It can also include a bracketed list of "extras" that are required for the entry point to be used. When the invoking application or framework requests loading of an entry point, any requirements implied by the associated extras will be passed to pkg_resources.require(), so that an appropriate error message can be displayed if the needed package(s) are missing. (Of course, the invoking app or framework can ignore such errors if it wants to make an entry point optional if a requirement isn't installed.)

Defining Additional Metadata

Some extensible applications and frameworks may need to define their own kinds of metadata to include in eggs, which they can then access using the pkg_resources metadata APIs. Ordinarily, this is done by having plugin developers include additional files in their ProjectName.egg-info directory. However, since it can be tedious to create such files by hand, you may want to create a distutils extension that will create the necessary files from arguments to setup(), in much the same way that setuptools does for many of the setup() arguments it adds. See the section below on Creating distutils Extensions for more details, especially the subsection on Adding new EGG-INFO Files.

"Development Mode"

Under normal circumstances, the distutils assume that you are going to build a distribution of your project, not use it in its "raw" or "unbuilt" form. If you were to use the distutils that way, you would have to rebuild and reinstall your project every time you made a change to it during development.

Another problem that sometimes comes up with the distutils is that you may need to do development on two related projects at the same time. You may need to put both projects' packages in the same directory to run them, but need to keep them separate for revision control purposes. How can you do this?

Setuptools allows you to deploy your projects for use in a common directory or staging area, but without copying any files. Thus, you can edit each project's code in its checkout directory, and only need to run build commands when you change a project's C extensions or similarly compiled files. You can even deploy a project into another project's checkout directory, if that's your preferred way of working (as opposed to using a common independent staging area or the site-packages directory).

To do this, use the setup.py develop command. It works very similarly to setup.py install or the EasyInstall tool, except that it doesn't actually install anything. Instead, it creates a special .egg-link file in the deployment directory, that links to your project's source code. And, if your deployment directory is Python's site-packages directory, it will also update the easy-install.pth file to include your project's source code, thereby making it available on sys.path for all programs using that Python installation.

In addition, the develop command creates wrapper scripts in the target script directory that will run your in-development scripts after ensuring that all your install_requires packages are available on sys.path.

You can deploy the same project to multiple staging areas, e.g. if you have multiple projects on the same machine that are sharing the same project you're doing development work.

When you're done with a given development task, you can remove the project source from a staging area using setup.py develop --uninstall, specifying the desired staging area if it's not the default.

There are several options to control the precise behavior of the develop command; see the section on the develop command below for more details.

Note that you can also apply setuptools commands to non-setuptools projects, using commands like this:

python -c "import setuptools; execfile('setup.py')" develop

That is, you can simply list the normal setup commands and options following the quoted part.

Distributing a setuptools-based project

Using setuptools... Without bundling it!

Your users might not have setuptools installed on their machines, or even if they do, it might not be the right version. Fixing this is easy; just download ez_setup.py, and put it in the same directory as your setup.py script. (Be sure to add it to your revision control system, too.) Then add these two lines to the very top of your setup script, before the script imports anything from setuptools:

import ez_setup
ez_setup.use_setuptools()

That's it. The ez_setup module will automatically download a matching version of setuptools from PyPI, if it isn't present on the target system. Whenever you install an updated version of setuptools, you should also update your projects' ez_setup.py files, so that a matching version gets installed on the target machine(s).

By the way, setuptools supports the new PyPI "upload" command, so you can use setup.py sdist upload or setup.py bdist_egg upload to upload your source or egg distributions respectively. Your project's current version must be registered with PyPI first, of course; you can use setup.py register to do that. Or you can do it all in one step, e.g. setup.py register sdist bdist_egg upload will register the package, build source and egg distributions, and then upload them both to PyPI, where they'll be easily found by other projects that depend on them.

(By the way, if you need to distribute a specific version of setuptools, you can specify the exact version and base download URL as parameters to the use_setuptools() function. See the function's docstring for details.)

What Your Users Should Know

In general, a setuptools-based project looks just like any distutils-based project -- as long as your users have an internet connection and are installing to site-packages, that is. But for some users, these conditions don't apply, and they may become frustrated if this is their first encounter with a setuptools-based project. To keep these users happy, you should review the following topics in your project's installation instructions, if they are relevant to your project and your target audience isn't already familiar with setuptools and easy_install.

Network Access
If your project is using ez_setup, you should inform users of the need to either have network access, or to preinstall the correct version of setuptools using the EasyInstall installation instructions. Those instructions also have tips for dealing with firewalls as well as how to manually download and install setuptools.
Custom Installation Locations
You should inform your users that if they are installing your project to somewhere other than the main site-packages directory, they should first install setuptools using the instructions for Custom Installation Locations, before installing your project.
Your Project's Dependencies

If your project depends on other projects that may need to be downloaded from PyPI or elsewhere, you should list them in your installation instructions, or tell users how to find out what they are. While most users will not need this information, any users who don't have unrestricted internet access may have to find, download, and install the other projects manually. (Note, however, that they must still install those projects using easy_install, or your project will not know they are installed, and your setup script will try to download them again.)

If you want to be especially friendly to users with limited network access, you may wish to build eggs for your project and its dependencies, making them all available for download from your site, or at least create a page with links to all of the needed eggs. In this way, users with limited network access can manually download all the eggs to a single directory, then use the -f option of easy_install to specify the directory to find eggs in. Users who have full network access can just use -f with the URL of your download page, and easy_install will find all the needed eggs using your links directly. This is also useful when your target audience isn't able to compile packages (e.g. most Windows users) and your package or some of its dependencies include C code.

Subversion or CVS Users and Co-Developers

Users and co-developers who are tracking your in-development code using CVS, Subversion, or some other revision control system should probably read this manual's sections regarding such development. Alternately, you may wish to create a quick-reference guide containing the tips from this manual that apply to your particular situation. For example, if you recommend that people use setup.py develop when tracking your in-development code, you should let them know that this needs to be run after every update or commit.

Similarly, if you remove modules or data files from your project, you should remind them to run setup.py clean --all and delete any obsolete .pyc or .pyo. (This tip applies to the distutils in general, not just setuptools, but not everybody knows about them; be kind to your users by spelling out your project's best practices rather than leaving them guessing.)

Creating System Packages

Some users want to manage all Python packages using a single package manager, and sometimes that package manager isn't easy_install! Setuptools currently supports bdist_rpm, bdist_wininst, and bdist_dumb formats for system packaging. If a user has a locally- installed "bdist" packaging tool that internally uses the distutils install command, it should be able to work with setuptools. Some examples of "bdist" formats that this should work with include the bdist_nsi and bdist_msi formats for Windows.

However, packaging tools that build binary distributions by running setup.py install on the command line or as a subprocess will require modification to work with setuptools. They should use the --single-version-externally-managed option to the install command, combined with the standard --root or --record options. See the install command documentation below for more details. The bdist_deb command is an example of a command that currently requires this kind of patching to work with setuptools.

If you or your users have a problem building a usable system package for your project, please report the problem via the `mailing list`_ so that either the "bdist" tool in question or setuptools can be modified to resolve the issue.

Managing Multiple Projects

If you're managing several projects that need to use ez_setup, and you are using Subversion as your revision control system, you can use the "svn:externals" property to share a single copy of ez_setup between projects, so that it will always be up-to-date whenever you check out or update an individual project, without having to manually update each project to use a new version.

However, because Subversion only supports using directories as externals, you have to turn ez_setup.py into ez_setup/__init__.py in order to do this, then create "externals" definitions that map the ez_setup directory into each project. Also, if any of your projects use find_packages() on their setup directory, you will need to exclude the resulting ez_setup package, to keep it from being included in your distributions, e.g.:

setup(
    ...
    packages = find_packages(exclude=['ez_setup']),
)

Of course, the ez_setup package will still be included in your packages' source distributions, as it needs to be.

For your convenience, you may use the following external definition, which will track the latest version of setuptools:

ez_setup svn://svn.eby-sarna.com/svnroot/ez_setup

You can set this by executing this command in your project directory:

svn propedit svn:externals .

And then adding the line shown above to the file that comes up for editing.

Setting the zip_safe flag

For maximum performance, Python packages are best installed as zip files. Not all packages, however, are capable of running in compressed form, because they may expect to be able to access either source code or data files as normal operating system files. So, setuptools can install your project as a zipfile or a directory, and its default choice is determined by the project's zip_safe flag.

You can pass a True or False value for the zip_safe argument to the setup() function, or you can omit it. If you omit it, the bdist_egg command will analyze your project's contents to see if it can detect any conditions that would prevent it from working in a zipfile. It will output notices to the console about any such conditions that it finds.

Currently, this analysis is extremely conservative: it will consider the project unsafe if it contains any C extensions or datafiles whatsoever. This does not mean that the project can't or won't work as a zipfile! It just means that the bdist_egg authors aren't yet comfortable asserting that the project will work. If the project contains no C or data files, and does no __file__ or __path__ introspection or source code manipulation, then there is an extremely solid chance the project will work when installed as a zipfile. (And if the project uses pkg_resources for all its data file access, then C extensions and other data files shouldn't be a problem at all. See the Accessing Data Files at Runtime section above for more information.)

However, if bdist_egg can't be sure that your package will work, but you've checked over all the warnings it issued, and you are either satisfied it will work (or if you want to try it for yourself), then you should set zip_safe to True in your setup() call. If it turns out that it doesn't work, you can always change it to False, which will force setuptools to install your project as a directory rather than as a zipfile.

Of course, the end-user can still override either decision, if they are using EasyInstall to install your package. And, if you want to override for testing purposes, you can just run setup.py easy_install --zip-ok . or setup.py easy_install --always-unzip . in your project directory. to install the package as a zipfile or directory, respectively.

In the future, as we gain more experience with different packages and become more satisfied with the robustness of the pkg_resources runtime, the "zip safety" analysis may become less conservative. However, we strongly recommend that you determine for yourself whether your project functions correctly when installed as a zipfile, correct any problems if you can, and then make an explicit declaration of True or False for the zip_safe flag, so that it will not be necessary for bdist_egg or EasyInstall to try to guess whether your project can work as a zipfile.

Namespace Packages

Sometimes, a large package is more useful if distributed as a collection of smaller eggs. However, Python does not normally allow the contents of a package to be retrieved from more than one location. "Namespace packages" are a solution for this problem. When you declare a package to be a namespace package, it means that the package has no meaningful contents in its __init__.py, and that it is merely a container for modules and subpackages.

The pkg_resources runtime will then automatically ensure that the contents of namespace packages that are spread over multiple eggs or directories are combined into a single "virtual" package.

The namespace_packages argument to setup() lets you declare your project's namespace packages, so that they will be included in your project's metadata. The argument should list the namespace packages that the egg participates in. For example, the ZopeInterface project might do this:

setup(
    # ...
    namespace_packages = ['zope']
)

because it contains a zope.interface package that lives in the zope namespace package. Similarly, a project for a standalone zope.publisher would also declare the zope namespace package. When these projects are installed and used, Python will see them both as part of a "virtual" zope package, even though they will be installed in different locations.

Namespace packages don't have to be top-level packages. For example, Zope 3's zope.app package is a namespace package, and in the future PEAK's peak.util package will be too.

Note, by the way, that your project's source tree must include the namespace packages' __init__.py files (and the __init__.py of any parent packages), in a normal Python package layout. These __init__.py files must contain the line:

__import__('pkg_resources').declare_namespace(__name__)

This code ensures that the namespace package machinery is operating and that the current package is registered as a namespace package.

You must NOT include any other code and data in a namespace package's __init__.py. Even though it may appear to work during development, or when projects are installed as .egg files, it will not work when the projects are installed using "system" packaging tools -- in such cases the __init__.py files will not be installed, let alone executed.

You must include the declare_namespace() line in the __init__.py of every project that has contents for the namespace package in question, in order to ensure that the namespace will be declared regardless of which project's copy of __init__.py is loaded first. If the first loaded __init__.py doesn't declare it, it will never be declared, because no other copies will ever be loaded!)

TRANSITIONAL NOTE

Setuptools 0.6a automatically calls declare_namespace() for you at runtime, but the 0.7a versions will not. This is because the automatic declaration feature has some negative side effects, such as needing to import all namespace packages during the initialization of the pkg_resources runtime, and also the need for pkg_resources to be explicitly imported before any namespace packages work at all. Beginning with the 0.7a releases, you'll be responsible for including your own declaration lines, and the automatic declaration feature will be dropped to get rid of the negative side effects.

During the remainder of the 0.6 development cycle, therefore, setuptools will warn you about missing declare_namespace() calls in your __init__.py files, and you should correct these as soon as possible before setuptools 0.7a1 is released. Namespace packages without declaration lines will not work correctly once a user has upgraded to setuptools 0.7a1, so it's important that you make this change now in order to avoid having your code break in the field. Our apologies for the inconvenience, and thank you for your patience.

Tagging and "Daily Build" or "Snapshot" Releases

When a set of related projects are under development, it may be important to track finer-grained version increments than you would normally use for e.g. "stable" releases. While stable releases might be measured in dotted numbers with alpha/beta/etc. status codes, development versions of a project often need to be tracked by revision or build number or even build date. This is especially true when projects in development need to refer to one another, and therefore may literally need an up-to-the-minute version of something!

To support these scenarios, setuptools allows you to "tag" your source and egg distributions by adding one or more of the following to the project's "official" version identifier:

  • A manually-specified pre-release tag, such as "build" or "dev", or a manually-specified post-release tag, such as a build or revision number (--tag-build=STRING, -bSTRING)
  • A "last-modified revision number" string generated automatically from Subversion's metadata (assuming your project is being built from a Subversion "working copy") (--tag-svn-revision, -r)
  • An 8-character representation of the build date (--tag-date, -d), as a postrelease tag

You can add these tags by adding egg_info and the desired options to the command line ahead of the sdist or bdist commands that you want to generate a daily build or snapshot for. See the section below on the egg_info command for more details.

(Also, before you release your project, be sure to see the section above on Specifying Your Project's Version for more information about how pre- and post-release tags affect how setuptools and EasyInstall interpret version numbers. This is important in order to make sure that dependency processing tools will know which versions of your project are newer than others.)

Finally, if you are creating builds frequently, and either building them in a downloadable location or are copying them to a distribution server, you should probably also check out the rotate command, which lets you automatically delete all but the N most-recently-modified distributions matching a glob pattern. So, you can use a command line like:

setup.py egg_info -rbDEV bdist_egg rotate -m.egg -k3

to build an egg whose version info includes 'DEV-rNNNN' (where NNNN is the most recent Subversion revision that affected the source tree), and then delete any egg files from the distribution directory except for the three that were built most recently.

If you have to manage automated builds for multiple packages, each with different tagging and rotation policies, you may also want to check out the alias command, which would let each package define an alias like daily that would perform the necessary tag, build, and rotate commands. Then, a simpler script or cron job could just run setup.py daily in each project directory. (And, you could also define sitewide or per-user default versions of the daily alias, so that projects that didn't define their own would use the appropriate defaults.)

Generating Source Distributions

setuptools enhances the distutils' default algorithm for source file selection, so that all files managed by CVS or Subversion in your project tree are included in any source distribution you build. This is a big improvement over having to manually write a MANIFEST.in file and try to keep it in sync with your project. So, if you are using CVS or Subversion, and your source distributions only need to include files that you're tracking in revision control, don't create a a MANIFEST.in file for your project. (And, if you already have one, you might consider deleting it the next time you would otherwise have to change it.)

(NOTE: other revision control systems besides CVS and Subversion can be supported using plugins; see the section below on Adding Support for Other Revision Control Systems for information on how to write such plugins.)

If you need to include automatically generated files, or files that are kept in an unsupported revision control system, you'll need to create a MANIFEST.in file to specify any files that the default file location algorithm doesn't catch. See the distutils documentation for more information on the format of the MANIFEST.in file.

But, be sure to ignore any part of the distutils documentation that deals with MANIFEST or how it's generated from MANIFEST.in; setuptools shields you from these issues and doesn't work the same way in any case. Unlike the distutils, setuptools regenerates the source distribution manifest file every time you build a source distribution, and it builds it inside the project's .egg-info directory, out of the way of your main project directory. You therefore need not worry about whether it is up-to-date or not.

Indeed, because setuptools' approach to determining the contents of a source distribution is so much simpler, its sdist command omits nearly all of the options that the distutils' more complex sdist process requires. For all practical purposes, you'll probably use only the --formats option, if you use any option at all.

(By the way, if you're using some other revision control system, you might consider creating and publishing a revision control plugin for setuptools.)

Making your package available for EasyInstall

If you use the register command (setup.py register) to register your package with PyPI, that's most of the battle right there. (See the docs for the register command for more details.)

If you also use the upload command to upload actual distributions of your package, that's even better, because EasyInstall will be able to find and download them directly from your project's PyPI page.

However, there may be reasons why you don't want to upload distributions to PyPI, and just want your existing distributions (or perhaps a Subversion checkout) to be used instead.

So here's what you need to do before running the register command. There are three setup() arguments that affect EasyInstall:

url and download_url
These become links on your project's PyPI page. EasyInstall will examine them to see if they link to a package ("primary links"), or whether they are HTML pages. If they're HTML pages, EasyInstall scans all HREF's on the page for primary links
long_description
EasyInstall will check any URLs contained in this argument to see if they are primary links.

A URL is considered a "primary link" if it is a link to a .tar.gz, .tgz, .zip, .egg, .egg.zip, .tar.bz2, or .exe file, or if it has an #egg=project or #egg=project-version fragment identifier attached to it. EasyInstall attempts to determine a project name and optional version number from the text of a primary link without downloading it. When it has found all the primary links, EasyInstall will select the best match based on requested version, platform compatibility, and other criteria.

So, if your url or download_url point either directly to a downloadable source distribution, or to HTML page(s) that have direct links to such, then EasyInstall will be able to locate downloads automatically. If you want to make Subversion checkouts available, then you should create links with either #egg=project or #egg=project-version added to the URL. You should replace project and version with the values they would have in an egg filename. (Be sure to actually generate an egg and then use the initial part of the filename, rather than trying to guess what the escaped form of the project name and version number will be.)

Note that Subversion checkout links are of lower precedence than other kinds of distributions, so EasyInstall will not select a Subversion checkout for downloading unless it has a version included in the #egg= suffix, and it's a higher version than EasyInstall has seen in any other links for your project.

As a result, it's a common practice to use mark checkout URLs with a version of "dev" (i.e., #egg=projectname-dev), so that users can do something like this:

easy_install --editable projectname==dev

in order to check out the in-development version of projectname.

Managing "Continuous Releases" Using Subversion

If you expect your users to track in-development versions of your project via Subversion, there are a few additional steps you should take to ensure that things work smoothly with EasyInstall. First, you should add the following to your project's setup.cfg file:

[egg_info]
tag_build = .dev
tag_svn_revision = 1

This will tell setuptools to generate package version numbers like 1.0a1.dev-r1263, which will be considered to be an older release than 1.0a1. Thus, when you actually release 1.0a1, the entire egg infrastructure (including setuptools, pkg_resources and EasyInstall) will know that 1.0a1 supersedes any interim snapshots from Subversion, and handle upgrades accordingly.

(Note: the project version number you specify in setup.py should always be the next version of your software, not the last released version. Alternately, you can leave out the tag_build=.dev, and always use the last release as a version number, so that your post-1.0 builds are labelled 1.0-r1263, indicating a post-1.0 patchlevel. Most projects so far, however, seem to prefer to think of their project as being a future version still under development, rather than a past version being patched. It is of course possible for a single project to have both situations, using post-release numbering on release branches, and pre-release numbering on the trunk. But you don't have to make things this complex if you don't want to.)

Commonly, projects releasing code from Subversion will include a PyPI link to their checkout URL (as described in the previous section) with an #egg=projectname-dev suffix. This allows users to request EasyInstall to download projectname==dev in order to get the latest in-development code. Note that if your project depends on such in-progress code, you may wish to specify your install_requires (or other requirements) to include ==dev, e.g.:

install_requires = ["OtherProject>=0.2a1.dev-r143,==dev"]

The above example says, "I really want at least this particular development revision number, but feel free to follow and use an #egg=OtherProject-dev link if you find one". This avoids the need to have actual source or binary distribution snapshots of in-development code available, just to be able to depend on the latest and greatest a project has to offer.

A final note for Subversion development: if you are using SVN revision tags as described in this section, it's a good idea to run setup.py develop after each Subversion checkin or update, because your project's version number will be changing, and your script wrappers need to be updated accordingly.

Also, if the project's requirements have changed, the develop command will take care of fetching the updated dependencies, building changed extensions, etc. Be sure to also remind any of your users who check out your project from Subversion that they need to run setup.py develop after every update in order to keep their checkout completely in sync.

Making "Official" (Non-Snapshot) Releases

When you make an official release, creating source or binary distributions, you will need to override the tag settings from setup.cfg, so that you don't end up registering versions like foobar-0.7a1.dev-r34832. This is easy to do if you are developing on the trunk and using tags or branches for your releases - just make the change to setup.cfg after branching or tagging the release, so the trunk will still produce development snapshots.

Alternately, if you are not branching for releases, you can override the default version options on the command line, using something like:

python setup.py egg_info -RDb "" sdist bdist_egg register upload

The first part of this command (egg_info -RDb "") will override the configured tag information, before creating source and binary eggs, registering the project with PyPI, and uploading the files. Thus, these commands will use the plain version from your setup.py, without adding the Subversion revision number or build designation string.

Of course, if you will be doing this a lot, you may wish to create a personal alias for this operation, e.g.:

python setup.py alias -u release egg_info -RDb ""

You can then use it like this:

python setup.py release sdist bdist_egg register upload

Or of course you can create more elaborate aliases that do all of the above. See the sections below on the egg_info and alias commands for more ideas.

Distributing Extensions compiled with Pyrex

setuptools includes transparent support for building Pyrex extensions, as long as you define your extensions using setuptools.Extension, not distutils.Extension. You must also not import anything from Pyrex in your setup script.

If you follow these rules, you can safely list .pyx files as the source of your Extension objects in the setup script. setuptools will detect at build time whether Pyrex is installed or not. If it is, then setuptools will use it. If not, then setuptools will silently change the Extension objects to refer to the .c counterparts of the .pyx files, so that the normal distutils C compilation process will occur.

Of course, for this to work, your source distributions must include the C code generated by Pyrex, as well as your original .pyx files. This means that you will probably want to include current .c files in your revision control system, rebuilding them whenever you check changes in for the .pyx source files. This will ensure that people tracking your project in CVS or Subversion will be able to build it even if they don't have Pyrex installed, and that your source releases will be similarly usable with or without Pyrex.

Command Reference

alias - Define shortcuts for commonly used commands

Sometimes, you need to use the same commands over and over, but you can't necessarily set them as defaults. For example, if you produce both development snapshot releases and "stable" releases of a project, you may want to put the distributions in different places, or use different egg_info tagging options, etc. In these cases, it doesn't make sense to set the options in a distutils configuration file, because the values of the options changed based on what you're trying to do.

Setuptools therefore allows you to define "aliases" - shortcut names for an arbitrary string of commands and options, using setup.py alias aliasname expansion, where aliasname is the name of the new alias, and the remainder of the command line supplies its expansion. For example, this command defines a sitewide alias called "daily", that sets various egg_info tagging options:

setup.py alias --global-config daily egg_info --tag-svn-revision \
    --tag-build=development

Once the alias is defined, it can then be used with other setup commands, e.g.:

setup.py daily bdist_egg        # generate a daily-build .egg file
setup.py daily sdist            # generate a daily-build source distro
setup.py daily sdist bdist_egg  # generate both

The above commands are interpreted as if the word daily were replaced with egg_info --tag-svn-revision --tag-build=development.

Note that setuptools will expand each alias at most once in a given command line. This serves two purposes. First, if you accidentally create an alias loop, it will have no effect; you'll instead get an error message about an unknown command. Second, it allows you to define an alias for a command, that uses that command. For example, this (project-local) alias:

setup.py alias bdist_egg bdist_egg rotate -k1 -m.egg

redefines the bdist_egg command so that it always runs the rotate command afterwards to delete all but the newest egg file. It doesn't loop indefinitely on bdist_egg because the alias is only expanded once when used.

You can remove a defined alias with the --remove (or -r) option, e.g.:

setup.py alias --global-config --remove daily

would delete the "daily" alias we defined above.

Aliases can be defined on a project-specific, per-user, or sitewide basis. The default is to define or remove a project-specific alias, but you can use any of the configuration file options (listed under the saveopts command, below) to determine which distutils configuration file an aliases will be added to (or removed from).

Note that if you omit the "expansion" argument to the alias command, you'll get output showing that alias' current definition (and what configuration file it's defined in). If you omit the alias name as well, you'll get a listing of all current aliases along with their configuration file locations.

bdist_egg - Create a Python Egg for the project

This command generates a Python Egg (.egg file) for the project. Python Eggs are the preferred binary distribution format for EasyInstall, because they are cross-platform (for "pure" packages), directly importable, and contain project metadata including scripts and information about the project's dependencies. They can be simply downloaded and added to sys.path directly, or they can be placed in a directory on sys.path and then automatically discovered by the egg runtime system.

This command runs the egg_info command (if it hasn't already run) to update the project's metadata (.egg-info) directory. If you have added any extra metadata files to the .egg-info directory, those files will be included in the new egg file's metadata directory, for use by the egg runtime system or by any applications or frameworks that use that metadata.

You won't usually need to specify any special options for this command; just use bdist_egg and you're done. But there are a few options that may be occasionally useful:

--dist-dir=DIR, -d DIR
Set the directory where the .egg file will be placed. If you don't supply this, then the --dist-dir setting of the bdist command will be used, which is usually a directory named dist in the project directory.
--plat-name=PLATFORM, -p PLATFORM
Set the platform name string that will be embedded in the egg's filename (assuming the egg contains C extensions). This can be used to override the distutils default platform name with something more meaningful. Keep in mind, however, that the egg runtime system expects to see eggs with distutils platform names, so it may ignore or reject eggs with non-standard platform names. Similarly, the EasyInstall program may ignore them when searching web pages for download links. However, if you are cross-compiling or doing some other unusual things, you might find a use for this option.
--exclude-source-files
Don't include any modules' .py files in the egg, just compiled Python, C, and data files. (Note that this doesn't affect any .py files in the EGG-INFO directory or its subdirectories, since for example there may be scripts with a .py extension which must still be retained.) We don't recommend that you use this option except for packages that are being bundled for proprietary end-user applications, or for "embedded" scenarios where space is at an absolute premium. On the other hand, if your package is going to be installed and used in compressed form, you might as well exclude the source because Python's traceback module doesn't currently understand how to display zipped source code anyway, or how to deal with files that are in a different place from where their code was compiled.

There are also some options you will probably never need, but which are there because they were copied from similar bdist commands used as an example for creating this one. They may be useful for testing and debugging, however, which is why we kept them:

--keep-temp, -k
Keep the contents of the --bdist-dir tree around after creating the .egg file.
--bdist-dir=DIR, -b DIR
Set the temporary directory for creating the distribution. The entire contents of this directory are zipped to create the .egg file, after running various installation commands to copy the package's modules, data, and extensions here.
--skip-build
Skip doing any "build" commands; just go straight to the install-and-compress phases.

develop - Deploy the project source in "Development Mode"

This command allows you to deploy your project's source for use in one or more "staging areas" where it will be available for importing. This deployment is done in such a way that changes to the project source are immediately available in the staging area(s), without needing to run a build or install step after each change.

The develop command works by creating an .egg-link file (named for the project) in the given staging area. If the staging area is Python's site-packages directory, it also updates an easy-install.pth file so that the project is on sys.path by default for all programs run using that Python installation.

The develop command also installs wrapper scripts in the staging area (or a separate directory, as specified) that will ensure the project's dependencies are available on sys.path before running the project's source scripts. And, it ensures that any missing project dependencies are available in the staging area, by downloading and installing them if necessary.

Last, but not least, the develop command invokes the build_ext -i command to ensure any C extensions in the project have been built and are up-to-date, and the egg_info command to ensure the project's metadata is updated (so that the runtime and wrappers know what the project's dependencies are). If you make any changes to the project's setup script or C extensions, you should rerun the develop command against all relevant staging areas to keep the project's scripts, metadata and extensions up-to-date. Most other kinds of changes to your project should not require any build operations or rerunning develop, but keep in mind that even minor changes to the setup script (e.g. changing an entry point definition) require you to re-run the develop or test commands to keep the distribution updated.

Here are some of the options that the develop command accepts. Note that they affect the project's dependencies as well as the project itself, so if you have dependencies that need to be installed and you use --exclude-scripts (for example), the dependencies' scripts will not be installed either! For this reason, you may want to use EasyInstall to install the project's dependencies before using the develop command, if you need finer control over the installation options for dependencies.

--uninstall, -u

Un-deploy the current project. You may use the --install-dir or -d option to designate the staging area. The created .egg-link file will be removed, if present and it is still pointing to the project directory. The project directory will be removed from easy-install.pth if the staging area is Python's site-packages directory.

Note that this option currently does not uninstall script wrappers! You must uninstall them yourself, or overwrite them by using EasyInstall to activate a different version of the package. You can also avoid installing script wrappers in the first place, if you use the --exclude-scripts (aka -x) option when you run develop to deploy the project.

--multi-version, -m

"Multi-version" mode. Specifying this option prevents develop from adding an easy-install.pth entry for the project(s) being deployed, and if an entry for any version of a project already exists, the entry will be removed upon successful deployment. In multi-version mode, no specific version of the package is available for importing, unless you use pkg_resources.require() to put it on sys.path, or you are running a wrapper script generated by setuptools or EasyInstall. (In which case the wrapper script calls require() for you.)

Note that if you install to a directory other than site-packages, this option is automatically in effect, because .pth files can only be used in site-packages (at least in Python 2.3 and 2.4). So, if you use the --install-dir or -d option (or they are set via configuration file(s)) your project and its dependencies will be deployed in multi- version mode.

--install-dir=DIR, -d DIR
Set the installation directory (staging area). If this option is not directly specified on the command line or in a distutils configuration file, the distutils default installation location is used. Normally, this will be the site-packages directory, but if you are using distutils configuration files, setting things like prefix or install_lib, then those settings are taken into account when computing the default staging area.
--script-dir=DIR, -s DIR
Set the script installation directory. If you don't supply this option (via the command line or a configuration file), but you have supplied an --install-dir (via command line or config file), then this option defaults to the same directory, so that the scripts will be able to find their associated package installation. Otherwise, this setting defaults to the location where the distutils would normally install scripts, taking any distutils configuration file settings into account.
--exclude-scripts, -x
Don't deploy script wrappers. This is useful if you don't want to disturb existing versions of the scripts in the staging area.
--always-copy, -a
Copy all needed distributions to the staging area, even if they are already present in another directory on sys.path. By default, if a requirement can be met using a distribution that is already available in a directory on sys.path, it will not be copied to the staging area.
--egg-path=DIR
Force the generated .egg-link file to use a specified relative path to the source directory. This can be useful in circumstances where your installation directory is being shared by code running under multiple platforms (e.g. Mac and Windows) which have different absolute locations for the code under development, but the same relative locations with respect to the installation directory. If you use this option when installing, you must supply the same relative path when uninstalling.

In addition to the above options, the develop command also accepts all of the same options accepted by easy_install. If you've configured any easy_install settings in your setup.cfg (or other distutils config files), the develop command will use them as defaults, unless you override them in a [develop] section or on the command line.

easy_install - Find and install packages

This command runs the EasyInstall tool for you. It is exactly equivalent to running the easy_install command. All command line arguments following this command are consumed and not processed further by the distutils, so this must be the last command listed on the command line. Please see the EasyInstall documentation for the options reference and usage examples. Normally, there is no reason to use this command via the command line, as you can just use easy_install directly. It's only listed here so that you know it's a distutils command, which means that you can:

  • create command aliases that use it,
  • create distutils extensions that invoke it as a subcommand, and
  • configure options for it in your setup.cfg or other distutils config files.

egg_info - Create egg metadata and set build tags

This command performs two operations: it updates a project's .egg-info metadata directory (used by the bdist_egg, develop, and test commands), and it allows you to temporarily change a project's version string, to support "daily builds" or "snapshot" releases. It is run automatically by the sdist, bdist_egg, develop, register, and test commands in order to update the project's metadata, but you can also specify it explicitly in order to temporarily change the project's version string while executing other commands. (It also generates the``.egg-info/SOURCES.txt`` manifest file, which is used when you are building source distributions.)

In addition to writing the core egg metadata defined by setuptools and required by pkg_resources, this command can be extended to write other metadata files as well, by defining entry points in the egg_info.writers group. See the section on Adding new EGG-INFO Files below for more details. Note that using additional metadata writers may require you to include a setup_requires argument to setup() in order to ensure that the desired writers are available on sys.path.

Release Tagging Options

The following options can be used to modify the project's version string for all remaining commands on the setup command line. The options are processed in the order shown, so if you use more than one, the requested tags will be added in the following order:

--tag-build=NAME, -b NAME

Append NAME to the project's version string. Due to the way setuptools processes "pre-release" version suffixes beginning with the letters "a" through "e" (like "alpha", "beta", and "candidate"), you will usually want to use a tag like ".build" or ".dev", as this will cause the version number to be considered lower than the project's default version. (If you want to make the version number higher than the default version, you can always leave off --tag-build and then use one or both of the following options.)

If you have a default build tag set in your setup.cfg, you can suppress it on the command line using -b "" or --tag-build="" as an argument to the egg_info command.

--tag-svn-revision, -r

If the current directory is a Subversion checkout (i.e. has a .svn subdirectory, this appends a string of the form "-rNNNN" to the project's version string, where NNNN is the revision number of the most recent modification to the current directory, as obtained from the svn info command.

If the current directory is not a Subversion checkout, the command will look for a PKG-INFO file instead, and try to find the revision number from that, by looking for a "-rNNNN" string at the end of the version number. (This is so that building a package from a source distribution of a Subversion snapshot will produce a binary with the correct version number.)

If there is no PKG-INFO file, or the version number contained therein does not end with -r and a number, then -r0 is used.

--no-svn-revision, -R
Don't include the Subversion revision in the version number. This option is included so you can override a default setting put in setup.cfg.
--tag-date, -d
Add a date stamp of the form "-YYYYMMDD" (e.g. "-20050528") to the project's version number.
--no-date, -D
Don't include a date stamp in the version number. This option is included so you can override a default setting in setup.cfg.

(Note: Because these options modify the version number used for source and binary distributions of your project, you should first make sure that you know how the resulting version numbers will be interpreted by automated tools like EasyInstall. See the section above on Specifying Your Project's Version for an explanation of pre- and post-release tags, as well as tips on how to choose and verify a versioning scheme for your your project.)

For advanced uses, there is one other option that can be set, to change the location of the project's .egg-info directory. Commands that need to find the project's source directory or metadata should get it from this setting:

Other egg_info Options

--egg-base=SOURCEDIR, -e SOURCEDIR
Specify the directory that should contain the .egg-info directory. This should normally be the root of your project's source tree (which is not necessarily the same as your project directory; some projects use a src or lib subdirectory as the source root). You should not normally need to specify this directory, as it is normally determined from the package_dir argument to the setup() function, if any. If there is no package_dir set, this option defaults to the current directory.

egg_info Examples

Creating a dated "nightly build" snapshot egg:

python setup.py egg_info --tag-date --tag-build=DEV bdist_egg

Creating and uploading a release with no version tags, even if some default tags are specified in setup.cfg:

python setup.py egg_info -RDb "" sdist bdist_egg register upload

(Notice that egg_info must always appear on the command line before any commands that you want the version changes to apply to.)

install - Run easy_install or old-style installation

The setuptools install command is basically a shortcut to run the easy_install command on the current project. However, for convenience in creating "system packages" of setuptools-based projects, you can also use this option:

--single-version-externally-managed
This boolean option tells the install command to perform an "old style" installation, with the addition of an .egg-info directory so that the installed project will still have its metadata available and operate normally. If you use this option, you must also specify the --root or --record options (or both), because otherwise you will have no way to identify and remove the installed files.

This option is automatically in effect when install is invoked by another distutils command, so that commands like bdist_wininst and bdist_rpm will create system packages of eggs. It is also automatically in effect if you specify the --root option.

install_egg_info - Install an .egg-info directory in site-packages

Setuptools runs this command as part of install operations that use the --single-version-externally-managed options. You should not invoke it directly; it is documented here for completeness and so that distutils extensions such as system package builders can make use of it. This command has only one option:

--install-dir=DIR, -d DIR
The parent directory where the .egg-info directory will be placed. Defaults to the same as the --install-dir option specified for the install_lib command, which is usually the system site-packages directory.

This command assumes that the egg_info command has been given valid options via the command line or setup.cfg, as it will invoke the egg_info command and use its options to locate the project's source .egg-info directory.

rotate - Delete outdated distribution files

As you develop new versions of your project, your distribution (dist) directory will gradually fill up with older source and/or binary distribution files. The rotate command lets you automatically clean these up, keeping only the N most-recently modified files matching a given pattern.

--match=PATTERNLIST, -m PATTERNLIST
Comma-separated list of glob patterns to match. This option is required. The project name and -* is prepended to the supplied patterns, in order to match only distributions belonging to the current project (in case you have a shared distribution directory for multiple projects). Typically, you will use a glob pattern like .zip or .egg to match files of the specified type. Note that each supplied pattern is treated as a distinct group of files for purposes of selecting files to delete.
--keep=COUNT, -k COUNT
Number of matching distributions to keep. For each group of files identified by a pattern specified with the --match option, delete all but the COUNT most-recently-modified files in that group. This option is required.
--dist-dir=DIR, -d DIR
Directory where the distributions are. This defaults to the value of the bdist command's --dist-dir option, which will usually be the project's dist subdirectory.

Example 1: Delete all .tar.gz files from the distribution directory, except for the 3 most recently modified ones:

setup.py rotate --match=.tar.gz --keep=3

Example 2: Delete all Python 2.3 or Python 2.4 eggs from the distribution directory, except the most recently modified one for each Python version:

setup.py rotate --match=-py2.3*.egg,-py2.4*.egg --keep=1

saveopts - Save used options to a configuration file

Finding and editing distutils configuration files can be a pain, especially since you also have to translate the configuration options from command-line form to the proper configuration file format. You can avoid these hassles by using the saveopts command. Just add it to the command line to save the options you used. For example, this command builds the project using the mingw32 C compiler, then saves the --compiler setting as the default for future builds (even those run implicitly by the install command):

setup.py build --compiler=mingw32 saveopts

The saveopts command saves all options for every commmand specified on the command line to the project's local setup.cfg file, unless you use one of the configuration file options to change where the options are saved. For example, this command does the same as above, but saves the compiler setting to the site-wide (global) distutils configuration:

setup.py build --compiler=mingw32 saveopts -g

Note that it doesn't matter where you place the saveopts command on the command line; it will still save all the options specified for all commands. For example, this is another valid way to spell the last example:

setup.py saveopts -g build --compiler=mingw32

Note, however, that all of the commands specified are always run, regardless of where saveopts is placed on the command line.

Configuration File Options

Normally, settings such as options and aliases are saved to the project's local setup.cfg file. But you can override this and save them to the global or per-user configuration files, or to a manually-specified filename.

--global-config, -g
Save settings to the global distutils.cfg file inside the distutils package directory. You must have write access to that directory to use this option. You also can't combine this option with -u or -f.
--user-config, -u
Save settings to the current user's ~/.pydistutils.cfg (POSIX) or $HOME/pydistutils.cfg (Windows) file. You can't combine this option with -g or -f.
--filename=FILENAME, -f FILENAME
Save settings to the specified configuration file to use. You can't combine this option with -g or -u. Note that if you specify a non-standard filename, the distutils and setuptools will not use the file's contents. This option is mainly included for use in testing.

These options are used by other setuptools commands that modify configuration files, such as the alias and setopt commands.

setopt - Set a distutils or setuptools option in a config file

This command is mainly for use by scripts, but it can also be used as a quick and dirty way to change a distutils configuration option without having to remember what file the options are in and then open an editor.

Example 1. Set the default C compiler to mingw32 (using long option names):

setup.py setopt --command=build --option=compiler --set-value=mingw32

Example 2. Remove any setting for the distutils default package installation directory (short option names):

setup.py setopt -c install -o install_lib -r

Options for the setopt command:

--command=COMMAND, -c COMMAND
Command to set the option for. This option is required.
--option=OPTION, -o OPTION
The name of the option to set. This option is required.
--set-value=VALUE, -s VALUE
The value to set the option to. Not needed if -r or --remove is set.
--remove, -r
Remove (unset) the option, instead of setting it.

In addition to the above options, you may use any of the configuration file options (listed under the saveopts command, above) to determine which distutils configuration file the option will be added to (or removed from).

test - Build package and run a unittest suite

When doing test-driven development, or running automated builds that need testing before they are deployed for downloading or use, it's often useful to be able to run a project's unit tests without actually deploying the project anywhere, even using the develop command. The test command runs a project's unit tests without actually deploying it, by temporarily putting the project's source on sys.path, after first running build_ext -i and egg_info to ensure that any C extensions and project metadata are up-to-date.

To use this command, your project's tests must be wrapped in a unittest test suite by either a function, a TestCase class or method, or a module or package containing TestCase classes. If the named suite is a module, and the module has an additional_tests() function, it is called and the result (which must be a unittest.TestSuite) is added to the tests to be run. If the named suite is a package, any submodules and subpackages are recursively added to the overall test suite. (Note: if your project specifies a test_loader, the rules for processing the chosen test_suite may differ; see the test_loader documentation for more details.)

Note that many test systems including doctest support wrapping their non-unittest tests in TestSuite objects. So, if you are using a test package that does not support this, we suggest you encourage its developers to implement test suite support, as this is a convenient and standard way to aggregate a collection of tests to be run under a common test harness.

By default, tests will be run in the "verbose" mode of the unittest package's text test runner, but you can get the "quiet" mode (just dots) if you supply the -q or --quiet option, either as a global option to the setup script (e.g. setup.py -q test) or as an option for the test command itself (e.g. setup.py test -q). There is one other option available:

--test-suite=NAME, -s NAME

Specify the test suite (or module, class, or method) to be run (e.g. some_module.test_suite). The default for this option can be set by giving a test_suite argument to the setup() function, e.g.:

setup(
    # ...
    test_suite = "my_package.tests.test_all"
)

If you did not set a test_suite in your setup() call, and do not provide a --test-suite option, an error will occur.

upload - Upload source and/or egg distributions to PyPI

PyPI now supports uploading project files for redistribution; uploaded files are easily found by EasyInstall, even if you don't have download links on your project's home page.

Although Python 2.5 will support uploading all types of distributions to PyPI, setuptools only supports source distributions and eggs. (This is partly because PyPI's upload support is currently broken for various other file types.) To upload files, you must include the upload command after the sdist or bdist_egg commands on the setup command line. For example:

setup.py bdist_egg upload         # create an egg and upload it
setup.py sdist upload             # create a source distro and upload it
setup.py sdist bdist_egg upload   # create and upload both

Note that to upload files for a project, the corresponding version must already be registered with PyPI, using the distutils register command. It's usually a good idea to include the register command at the start of the command line, so that any registration problems can be found and fixed before building and uploading the distributions, e.g.:

setup.py register sdist bdist_egg upload

This will update PyPI's listing for your project's current version.

Note, by the way, that the metadata in your setup() call determines what will be listed in PyPI for your package. Try to fill out as much of it as possible, as it will save you a lot of trouble manually adding and updating your PyPI listings. Just put it in setup.py and use the register comamnd to keep PyPI up to date.

The upload command has a few options worth noting:

--sign, -s
Sign each uploaded file using GPG (GNU Privacy Guard). The gpg program must be available for execution on the system PATH.
--identity=NAME, -i NAME
Specify the identity or key name for GPG to use when signing. The value of this option will be passed through the --local-user option of the gpg program.
--show-response
Display the full response text from server; this is useful for debugging PyPI problems.
--repository=URL, -r URL
The URL of the repository to upload to. Defaults to http://pypi.python.org/pypi (i.e., the main PyPI installation).

Extending and Reusing setuptools

Creating distutils Extensions

It can be hard to add new commands or setup arguments to the distutils. But the setuptools package makes it a bit easier, by allowing you to distribute a distutils extension as a separate project, and then have projects that need the extension just refer to it in their setup_requires argument.

With setuptools, your distutils extension projects can hook in new commands and setup() arguments just by defining "entry points". These are mappings from command or argument names to a specification of where to import a handler from. (See the section on Dynamic Discovery of Services and Plugins above for some more background on entry points.)

Adding Commands

You can add new setup commands by defining entry points in the distutils.commands group. For example, if you wanted to add a foo command, you might add something like this to your distutils extension project's setup script:

setup(
    # ...
    entry_points = {
        "distutils.commands": [
            "foo = mypackage.some_module:foo",
        ],
    },
)

(Assuming, of course, that the foo class in mypackage.some_module is a setuptools.Command subclass.)

Once a project containing such entry points has been activated on sys.path, (e.g. by running "install" or "develop" with a site-packages installation directory) the command(s) will be available to any setuptools-based setup scripts. It is not necessary to use the --command-packages option or to monkeypatch the distutils.command package to install your commands; setuptools automatically adds a wrapper to the distutils to search for entry points in the active distributions on sys.path. In fact, this is how setuptools' own commands are installed: the setuptools project's setup script defines entry points for them!

Adding setup() Arguments

Sometimes, your commands may need additional arguments to the setup() call. You can enable this by defining entry points in the distutils.setup_keywords group. For example, if you wanted a setup() argument called bar_baz, you might add something like this to your distutils extension project's setup script:

setup(
    # ...
    entry_points = {
        "distutils.commands": [
            "foo = mypackage.some_module:foo",
        ],
        "distutils.setup_keywords": [
            "bar_baz = mypackage.some_module:validate_bar_baz",
        ],
    },
)

The idea here is that the entry point defines a function that will be called to validate the setup() argument, if it's supplied. The Distribution object will have the initial value of the attribute set to None, and the validation function will only be called if the setup() call sets it to a non-None value. Here's an example validation function:

def assert_bool(dist, attr, value):
    """Verify that value is True, False, 0, or 1"""
    if bool(value) != value:
        raise DistutilsSetupError(
            "%r must be a boolean value (got %r)" % (attr,value)
        )

Your function should accept three arguments: the Distribution object, the attribute name, and the attribute value. It should raise a DistutilsSetupError (from the distutils.error module) if the argument is invalid. Remember, your function will only be called with non-None values, and the default value of arguments defined this way is always None. So, your commands should always be prepared for the possibility that the attribute will be None when they access it later.

If more than one active distribution defines an entry point for the same setup() argument, all of them will be called. This allows multiple distutils extensions to define a common argument, as long as they agree on what values of that argument are valid.

Also note that as with commands, it is not necessary to subclass or monkeypatch the distutils Distribution class in order to add your arguments; it is sufficient to define the entry points in your extension, as long as any setup script using your extension lists your project in its setup_requires argument.

Adding new EGG-INFO Files

Some extensible applications or frameworks may want to allow third parties to develop plugins with application or framework-specific metadata included in the plugins' EGG-INFO directory, for easy access via the pkg_resources metadata API. The easiest way to allow this is to create a distutils extension to be used from the plugin projects' setup scripts (via setup_requires) that defines a new setup keyword, and then uses that data to write an EGG-INFO file when the egg_info command is run.

The egg_info command looks for extension points in an egg_info.writers group, and calls them to write the files. Here's a simple example of a distutils extension defining a setup argument foo_bar, which is a list of lines that will be written to foo_bar.txt in the EGG-INFO directory of any project that uses the argument:

setup(
    # ...
    entry_points = {
        "distutils.setup_keywords": [
            "foo_bar = setuptools.dist:assert_string_list",
        ],
        "egg_info.writers": [
            "foo_bar.txt = setuptools.command.egg_info:write_arg",
        ],
    },
)

This simple example makes use of two utility functions defined by setuptools for its own use: a routine to validate that a setup keyword is a sequence of strings, and another one that looks up a setup argument and writes it to a file. Here's what the writer utility looks like:

def write_arg(cmd, basename, filename):
    argname = os.path.splitext(basename)[0]
    value = getattr(cmd.distribution, argname, None)
    if value is not None:
        value = '\n'.join(value)+'\n'
    cmd.write_or_delete_file(argname, filename, value)

As you can see, egg_info.writers entry points must be a function taking three arguments: a egg_info command instance, the basename of the file to write (e.g. foo_bar.txt), and the actual full filename that should be written to.

In general, writer functions should honor the command object's dry_run setting when writing files, and use the distutils.log object to do any console output. The easiest way to conform to this requirement is to use the cmd object's write_file(), delete_file(), and write_or_delete_file() methods exclusively for your file operations. See those methods' docstrings for more details.

Adding Support for Other Revision Control Systems

If you would like to create a plugin for setuptools to find files in other source control systems besides CVS and Subversion, you can do so by adding an entry point to the setuptools.file_finders group. The entry point should be a function accepting a single directory name, and should yield all the filenames within that directory (and any subdirectories thereof) that are under revision control.

For example, if you were going to create a plugin for a revision control system called "foobar", you would write a function something like this:

def find_files_for_foobar(dirname):
    # loop to yield paths that start with `dirname`

And you would register it in a setup script using something like this:

entry_points = {
    "setuptools.file_finders": [
        "foobar = my_foobar_module:find_files_for_foobar"
    ]
}

Then, anyone who wants to use your plugin can simply install it, and their local setuptools installation will be able to find the necessary files.

It is not necessary to distribute source control plugins with projects that simply use the other source control system, or to specify the plugins in setup_requires. When you create a source distribution with the sdist command, setuptools automatically records what files were found in the SOURCES.txt file. That way, recipients of source distributions don't need to have revision control at all. However, if someone is working on a package by checking out with that system, they will need the same plugin(s) that the original author is using.

A few important points for writing revision control file finders:

  • Your finder function MUST return relative paths, created by appending to the passed-in directory name. Absolute paths are NOT allowed, nor are relative paths that reference a parent directory of the passed-in directory.
  • Your finder function MUST accept an empty string as the directory name, meaning the current directory. You MUST NOT convert this to a dot; just yield relative paths. So, yielding a subdirectory named some/dir under the current directory should NOT be rendered as ./some/dir or /somewhere/some/dir, but always as simply some/dir
  • Your finder function SHOULD NOT raise any errors, and SHOULD deal gracefully with the absence of needed programs (i.e., ones belonging to the revision control system itself. It may, however, use distutils.log.warn() to inform the user of the missing program(s).

A Note Regarding Dependencies

If the project containing your distutils/setuptools extension(s) depends on any projects other than setuptools, you must also declare those dependencies as part of your project's setup_requires keyword, so that they will already be built (and at least temprorarily installed) before your extension project is built.

So, if for example you create a project Foo that includes a new file finder plugin, and Foo depends on Bar, then you must list Bar in both the install_requires and setup_requires arguments to setup().

If you don't do this, then in certain edge cases you may cause setuptools to try to go into infinite recursion, trying to build your dependencies to resolve your dependencies, while still building your dependencies. (It probably won't happen on your development machine, but it will happen in a full build pulling everything from revision control on a clean machine, and then you or your users will be scratching their heads trying to figure it out!)

Subclassing Command

Sorry, this section isn't written yet, and neither is a lot of what's below this point, except for the change log. You might want to subscribe to changes in this page to see when new documentation is added or updated.

XXX

Release Notes/Change History

0.6c11
  • Fix "bdist_wininst upload" trying to upload same file twice
0.6c10
  • Fix for the Python 2.6.3 build_ext API change
  • Ensure C libraries (as opposed to extensions) are also built when doing bdist_egg
  • Support for SVN 1.6
0.6c9
  • Fixed a missing files problem when using Windows source distributions on non-Windows platforms, due to distutils not handling manifest file line endings correctly.
  • Updated Pyrex support to work with Pyrex 0.9.6 and higher.
  • Minor changes for Jython compatibility, including skipping tests that can't work on Jython.
  • Fixed not installing eggs in install_requires if they were also used for setup_requires or tests_require.
  • Fixed not fetching eggs in install_requires when running tests.
  • Allow ez_setup.use_setuptools() to upgrade existing setuptools installations when called from a standalone setup.py.
  • Added a warning if a namespace package is declared, but its parent package is not also declared as a namespace.
  • Support Subversion 1.5
  • Removed use of deprecated md5 module if hashlib is available
  • Fixed bdist_wininst upload trying to upload the .exe twice
  • Fixed bdist_egg putting a native_libs.txt in the source package's .egg-info, when it should only be in the built egg's EGG-INFO.
  • Ensure that _full_name is set on all shared libs before extensions are checked for shared lib usage. (Fixes a bug in the experimental shared library build support.)
  • Fix to allow unpacked eggs containing native libraries to fail more gracefully under Google App Engine (with an ImportError loading the C-based module, instead of getting a NameError).
0.6c7
  • Fixed distutils.filelist.findall() crashing on broken symlinks, and egg_info command failing on new, uncommitted SVN directories.
  • Fix import problems with nested namespace packages installed via --root or --single-version-externally-managed, due to the parent package not having the child package as an attribute.
0.6c6
  • Added --egg-path option to develop command, allowing you to force .egg-link files to use relative paths (allowing them to be shared across platforms on a networked drive).
  • Fix not building binary RPMs correctly.
  • Fix "eggsecutables" (such as setuptools' own egg) only being runnable with bash-compatible shells.
  • Fix #! parsing problems in Windows .exe script wrappers, when there was whitespace inside a quoted argument or at the end of the #! line (a regression introduced in 0.6c4).
  • Fix test command possibly failing if an older version of the project being tested was installed on sys.path ahead of the test source directory.
  • Fix find_packages() treating ez_setup and directories with . in their names as packages.
0.6c5
  • Fix uploaded bdist_rpm packages being described as bdist_egg packages under Python versions less than 2.5.
  • Fix uploaded bdist_wininst packages being described as suitable for "any" version by Python 2.5, even if a --target-version was specified.
0.6c4
  • Overhauled Windows script wrapping to support bdist_wininst better. Scripts installed with bdist_wininst will always use #!python.exe or #!pythonw.exe as the executable name (even when built on non-Windows platforms!), and the wrappers will look for the executable in the script's parent directory (which should find the right version of Python).
  • Fix upload command not uploading files built by bdist_rpm or bdist_wininst under Python 2.3 and 2.4.
  • Add support for "eggsecutable" headers: a #!/bin/sh script that is prepended to an .egg file to allow it to be run as a script on Unix-ish platforms. (This is mainly so that setuptools itself can have a single-file installer on Unix, without doing multiple downloads, dealing with firewalls, etc.)
  • Fix problem with empty revision numbers in Subversion 1.4 entries files
  • Use cross-platform relative paths in easy-install.pth when doing develop and the source directory is a subdirectory of the installation target directory.
  • Fix a problem installing eggs with a system packaging tool if the project contained an implicit namespace package; for example if the setup() listed a namespace package foo.bar without explicitly listing foo as a namespace package.
0.6c3
  • Fixed breakages caused by Subversion 1.4's new "working copy" format
0.6c2
  • The ez_setup module displays the conflicting version of setuptools (and its installation location) when a script requests a version that's not available.
  • Running setup.py develop on a setuptools-using project will now install setuptools if needed, instead of only downloading the egg.
0.6c1
  • Fixed AttributeError when trying to download a setup_requires dependency when a distribution lacks a dependency_links setting.
  • Made zip-safe and not-zip-safe flag files contain a single byte, so as to play better with packaging tools that complain about zero-length files.
  • Made setup.py develop respect the --no-deps option, which it previously was ignoring.
  • Support extra_path option to setup() when install is run in backward-compatibility mode.
  • Source distributions now always include a setup.cfg file that explicitly sets egg_info options such that they produce an identical version number to the source distribution's version number. (Previously, the default version number could be different due to the use of --tag-date, or if the version was overridden on the command line that built the source distribution.)
0.6b4
  • Fix register not obeying name/version set by egg_info command, if egg_info wasn't explicitly run first on the same command line.
  • Added --no-date and --no-svn-revision options to egg_info command, to allow suppressing tags configured in setup.cfg.
  • Fixed redundant warnings about missing README file(s); it should now appear only if you are actually a source distribution.
0.6b3
  • Fix bdist_egg not including files in subdirectories of .egg-info.
  • Allow .py files found by the include_package_data option to be automatically included. Remove duplicate data file matches if both include_package_data and package_data are used to refer to the same files.
0.6b1
  • Strip module from the end of compiled extension modules when computing the name of a .py loader/wrapper. (Python's import machinery ignores this suffix when searching for an extension module.)
0.6a11
  • Added test_loader keyword to support custom test loaders
  • Added setuptools.file_finders entry point group to allow implementing revision control plugins.
  • Added --identity option to upload command.
  • Added dependency_links to allow specifying URLs for --find-links.
  • Enhanced test loader to scan packages as well as modules, and call additional_tests() if present to get non-unittest tests.
  • Support namespace packages in conjunction with system packagers, by omitting the installation of any __init__.py files for namespace packages, and adding a special .pth file to create a working package in sys.modules.
  • Made --single-version-externally-managed automatic when --root is used, so that most system packagers won't require special support for setuptools.
  • Fixed setup_requires, tests_require, etc. not using setup.cfg or other configuration files for their option defaults when installing, and also made the install use --multi-version mode so that the project directory doesn't need to support .pth files.
  • MANIFEST.in is now forcibly closed when any errors occur while reading it. Previously, the file could be left open and the actual error would be masked by problems trying to remove the open file on Windows systems.
0.6a10
  • Fixed the develop command ignoring --find-links.
0.6a9
  • The sdist command no longer uses the traditional MANIFEST file to create source distributions. MANIFEST.in is still read and processed, as are the standard defaults and pruning. But the manifest is built inside the project's .egg-info directory as SOURCES.txt, and it is rebuilt every time the egg_info command is run.
  • Added the include_package_data keyword to setup(), allowing you to automatically include any package data listed in revision control or MANIFEST.in
  • Added the exclude_package_data keyword to setup(), allowing you to trim back files included via the package_data and include_package_data options.
  • Fixed --tag-svn-revision not working when run from a source distribution.
  • Added warning for namespace packages with missing declare_namespace()
  • Added tests_require keyword to setup(), so that e.g. packages requiring nose to run unit tests can make this dependency optional unless the test command is run.
  • Made all commands that use easy_install respect its configuration options, as this was causing some problems with setup.py install.
  • Added an unpack_directory() driver to setuptools.archive_util, so that you can process a directory tree through a processing filter as if it were a zipfile or tarfile.
  • Added an internal install_egg_info command to use as part of old-style install operations, that installs an .egg-info directory with the package.
  • Added a --single-version-externally-managed option to the install command so that you can more easily wrap a "flat" egg in a system package.
  • Enhanced bdist_rpm so that it installs single-version eggs that don't rely on a .pth file. The --no-egg option has been removed, since all RPMs are now built in a more backwards-compatible format.
  • Support full roundtrip translation of eggs to and from bdist_wininst format. Running bdist_wininst on a setuptools-based package wraps the egg in an .exe that will safely install it as an egg (i.e., with metadata and entry-point wrapper scripts), and easy_install can turn the .exe back into an .egg file or directory and install it as such.
0.6a8
  • Fixed some problems building extensions when Pyrex was installed, especially with Python 2.4 and/or packages using SWIG.
  • Made develop command accept all the same options as easy_install, and use the easy_install command's configuration settings as defaults.
  • Made egg_info --tag-svn-revision fall back to extracting the revision number from PKG-INFO in case it is being run on a source distribution of a snapshot taken from a Subversion-based project.
  • Automatically detect .dll, .so and .dylib files that are being installed as data, adding them to native_libs.txt automatically.
  • Fixed some problems with fresh checkouts of projects that don't include .egg-info/PKG-INFO under revision control and put the project's source code directly in the project directory. If such a package had any requirements that get processed before the egg_info command can be run, the setup scripts would fail with a "Missing 'Version:' header and/or PKG-INFO file" error, because the egg runtime interpreted the unbuilt metadata in a directory on sys.path (i.e. the current directory) as being a corrupted egg. Setuptools now monkeypatches the distribution metadata cache to pretend that the egg has valid version information, until it has a chance to make it actually be so (via the egg_info command).
0.6a5
  • Fixed missing gui/cli .exe files in distribution. Fixed bugs in tests.
0.6a3
  • Added gui_scripts entry point group to allow installing GUI scripts on Windows and other platforms. (The special handling is only for Windows; other platforms are treated the same as for console_scripts.)
0.6a2
  • Added console_scripts entry point group to allow installing scripts without the need to create separate script files. On Windows, console scripts get an .exe wrapper so you can just type their name. On other platforms, the scripts are written without a file extension.
0.6a1
  • Added support for building "old-style" RPMs that don't install an egg for the target package, using a --no-egg option.
  • The build_ext command now works better when using the --inplace option and multiple Python versions. It now makes sure that all extensions match the current Python version, even if newer copies were built for a different Python version.
  • The upload command no longer attaches an extra .zip when uploading eggs, as PyPI now supports egg uploads without trickery.
  • The ez_setup script/module now displays a warning before downloading the setuptools egg, and attempts to check the downloaded egg against an internal MD5 checksum table.
  • Fixed the --tag-svn-revision option of egg_info not finding the latest revision number; it was using the revision number of the directory containing setup.py, not the highest revision number in the project.
  • Added eager_resources setup argument
  • The sdist command now recognizes Subversion "deleted file" entries and does not include them in source distributions.
  • setuptools now embeds itself more thoroughly into the distutils, so that other distutils extensions (e.g. py2exe, py2app) will subclass setuptools' versions of things, rather than the native distutils ones.
  • Added entry_points and setup_requires arguments to setup(); setup_requires allows you to automatically find and download packages that are needed in order to build your project (as opposed to running it).
  • setuptools now finds its commands, setup() argument validators, and metadata writers using entry points, so that they can be extended by third-party packages. See Creating distutils Extensions above for more details.
  • The vestigial depends command has been removed. It was never finished or documented, and never would have worked without EasyInstall - which it pre-dated and was never compatible with.
0.5a12
  • The zip-safety scanner now checks for modules that might be used with python -m, and marks them as unsafe for zipping, since Python 2.4 can't handle -m on zipped modules.
0.5a11
  • Fix breakage of the "develop" command that was caused by the addition of --always-unzip to the easy_install command.
0.5a9
  • Include svn:externals directories in source distributions as well as normal subversion-controlled files and directories.
  • Added exclude=patternlist option to setuptools.find_packages()
  • Changed --tag-svn-revision to include an "r" in front of the revision number for better readability.
  • Added ability to build eggs without including source files (except for any scripts, of course), using the --exclude-source-files option to bdist_egg.
  • setup.py install now automatically detects when an "unmanaged" package or module is going to be on sys.path ahead of a package being installed, thereby preventing the newer version from being imported. If this occurs, a warning message is output to sys.stderr, but installation proceeds anyway. The warning message informs the user what files or directories need deleting, and advises them they can also use EasyInstall (with the --delete-conflicting option) to do it automatically.
  • The egg_info command now adds a top_level.txt file to the metadata directory that lists all top-level modules and packages in the distribution. This is used by the easy_install command to find possibly-conflicting "unmanaged" packages when installing the distribution.
  • Added zip_safe and namespace_packages arguments to setup(). Added package analysis to determine zip-safety if the zip_safe flag is not given, and advise the author regarding what code might need changing.
  • Fixed the swapped -d and -b options of bdist_egg.
0.5a8
  • The "egg_info" command now always sets the distribution metadata to "safe" forms of the distribution name and version, so that distribution files will be generated with parseable names (i.e., ones that don't include '-' in the name or version). Also, this means that if you use the various --tag options of "egg_info", any distributions generated will use the tags in the version, not just egg distributions.
  • Added support for defining command aliases in distutils configuration files, under the "[aliases]" section. To prevent recursion and to allow aliases to call the command of the same name, a given alias can be expanded only once per command-line invocation. You can define new aliases with the "alias" command, either for the local, global, or per-user configuration.
  • Added "rotate" command to delete old distribution files, given a set of patterns to match and the number of files to keep. (Keeps the most recently-modified distribution files matching each pattern.)
  • Added "saveopts" command that saves all command-line options for the current invocation to the local, global, or per-user configuration file. Useful for setting defaults without having to hand-edit a configuration file.
  • Added a "setopt" command that sets a single option in a specified distutils configuration file.
0.5a7
  • Added "upload" support for egg and source distributions, including a bug fix for "upload" and a temporary workaround for lack of .egg support in PyPI.
0.5a6
  • Beefed up the "sdist" command so that if you don't have a MANIFEST.in, it will include all files under revision control (CVS or Subversion) in the current directory, and it will regenerate the list every time you create a source distribution, not just when you tell it to. This should make the default "do what you mean" more often than the distutils' default behavior did, while still retaining the old behavior in the presence of MANIFEST.in.
  • Fixed the "develop" command always updating .pth files, even if you specified -n or --dry-run.
  • Slightly changed the format of the generated version when you use --tag-build on the "egg_info" command, so that you can make tagged revisions compare lower than the version specified in setup.py (e.g. by using --tag-build=dev).
0.5a5
  • Added develop command to setuptools-based packages. This command installs an .egg-link pointing to the package's source directory, and script wrappers that execfile() the source versions of the package's scripts. This lets you put your development checkout(s) on sys.path without having to actually install them. (To uninstall the link, use use setup.py develop --uninstall.)
  • Added egg_info command to setuptools-based packages. This command just creates or updates the "projectname.egg-info" directory, without building an egg. (It's used by the bdist_egg, test, and develop commands.)
  • Enhanced the test command so that it doesn't install the package, but instead builds any C extensions in-place, updates the .egg-info metadata, adds the source directory to sys.path, and runs the tests directly on the source. This avoids an "unmanaged" installation of the package to site-packages or elsewhere.
  • Made easy_install a standard setuptools command, moving it from the easy_install module to setuptools.command.easy_install. Note that if you were importing or extending it, you must now change your imports accordingly. easy_install.py is still installed as a script, but not as a module.
0.5a4
  • Setup scripts using setuptools can now list their dependencies directly in the setup.py file, without having to manually create a depends.txt file. The install_requires and extras_require arguments to setup() are used to create a dependencies file automatically. If you are manually creating depends.txt right now, please switch to using these setup arguments as soon as practical, because depends.txt support will be removed in the 0.6 release cycle. For documentation on the new arguments, see the setuptools.dist.Distribution class.
  • Setup scripts using setuptools now always install using easy_install internally, for ease of uninstallation and upgrading.
0.5a1
  • Added support for "self-installation" bootstrapping. Packages can now include ez_setup.py in their source distribution, and add the following to their setup.py, in order to automatically bootstrap installation of setuptools as part of their setup process:

    from ez_setup import use_setuptools
    use_setuptools()
    
    from setuptools import setup
    # etc...
    
0.4a2
  • Added ez_setup.py installer/bootstrap script to make initial setuptools installation easier, and to allow distributions using setuptools to avoid having to include setuptools in their source distribution.
  • All downloads are now managed by the PackageIndex class (which is now subclassable and replaceable), so that embedders can more easily override download logic, give download progress reports, etc. The class has also been moved to the new setuptools.package_index module.
  • The Installer class no longer handles downloading, manages a temporary directory, or tracks the zip_ok option. Downloading is now handled by PackageIndex, and Installer has become an easy_install command class based on setuptools.Command.
  • There is a new setuptools.sandbox.run_setup() API to invoke a setup script in a directory sandbox, and a new setuptools.archive_util module with an unpack_archive() API. These were split out of EasyInstall to allow reuse by other tools and applications.
  • setuptools.Command now supports reinitializing commands using keyword arguments to set/reset options. Also, Command subclasses can now set their command_consumes_arguments attribute to True in order to receive an args option containing the rest of the command line.
0.3a2
  • Added new options to bdist_egg to allow tagging the egg's version number with a subversion revision number, the current date, or an explicit tag value. Run setup.py bdist_egg --help to get more information.
  • Misc. bug fixes
0.3a1
  • Initial release.

Mailing List and Bug Tracker

Please use the distutils-sig mailing list for questions and discussion about setuptools, and the setuptools bug tracker ONLY for issues you have confirmed via the list are actual bugs, and which you have reduced to a minimal set of steps to reproduce.

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